Enrica Giuliana MarianoRome Tor Vergata University, Italy
Title: Takotsubo syndrome: The secret crosstalk between heart and brain
An acute, transient episode of left ventricular dysfunction characterizes Takotsubo syndrome. It represents about 2% of all cases of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), and occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women, generally following a significant physical or emotional stressor. It can be diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and the absence of coronary artery disease on angiography. Ventriculography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis. Despite its transitory characteristic Takotsubo syndrome should not be considered a benign condition since complications occur in almost half of the patients, and the mortality rate reaches 4–5%. Lately, it has been revealed that Takotsubo syndrome can also lead to permanent myocardial damage due to the massive release of catecholamines that leads to myocardial dysfunction. Different mechanisms have been advanced to explain this fascinating syndrome, such as plaque rupture and thrombosis, coronary spasm, microcirculatory dysfunction, catecholamine toxicity, and activation of myocardial survival pathways. Here are still several issues with Takotsubo syndrome that need to be investigated: the complex relationship between the heart and the brain, the risk of permanent myocardial damage, and the impairment of cardiomyocyte. Our review aims to elucidate the pathophysiology and the mechanisms underlying this complex disease to manage the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms to create a functional synergy between physicians and patients.
Enrica Mariano completed his PhD at the age of 34 years from Rome Tor Vergata University, Italy. She is an interventional cardiologist and assistant professor in the cardiology department of Tor Vergata University, Italy from 2003. She has 55 publications, and his publication h-index is 15.